Criminology and the Humanities


The increased scrutiny of police in recent years presents a difficult question: How can we create a more intelligent form of criminal justice? This book argues an infusion of the humanities into the criminal justice curriculum can accomplish what no other form of training can: the cultivation of criminal justice professionals whose physical strength is matched by mental and ethical strength. By bringing students to wrestle with the conceptual problems involved in crime and justice as represented in classical literary and philosophical works, a humanistic criminal justice education can bring law enforcement agents to think deeply about their enterprise before - rather than after - action must be taken in a high-pressure situation out on the street. Understanding the ancient artistic and philosophical origins of modern forms of crime and justice, moreover, can help academics reconnect the social science of criminology with the social problems that prompted it in the first place. In other words, the humanities can help us ensure the enterprise of criminal justice is worthy enough to merit the immense power society bestows upon it. 



Criminology and Literature

The Word Criminology: A Philology and a Definition



The past few decades of criminology have been an age of integration. The totalizing methodological disputes of the twentieth century (waged among biological, psychological, and sociological theories of crime) have been set aside in favor of a more holistic view of criminological theories as various tools in the toolkit of understanding and preventing crime. This book argues that the next phase of integration in criminology will be – or could be – with the humanities. The movement is already underway with the (re)turn to qualitative, philosophical, rational analysis in the neoclassical school, in venues like the Journal of Qualitative Criminal Justice & Criminology, in calls to bring the liberal arts into “Introduction to Criminal Justice” courses, and in the emergence of unorthodox (non-scientific, non-academic, non-argumentative) approaches to criminology such as “cultural criminology,” “popular criminology,” and “public criminology.” By considering these recent innovations in light of the literary and philosophical pre-history of criminology, this book maps out the role of the Humanities in both the past and the future of criminology.


I also argue that the humanities can bring greater self-consciousness to criminal justice as a discipline and to those who practice it. On the level of the discipline, the humanities can help criminology better understand its own history which can, in turn, help a criminology prone to scientism reconnect with the complex social problems that prompted the field in the first place: the humanities can help criminology be more political. On the level of the practitioner, the humanities can help criminal justice professionals generally prone to action rather than contemplation develop skills of analytical and ethical reasoning: the humanities can help criminologists be more thoughtful. By being more analytical and more political, criminology will be better positioned to understand and prevent crime.


Chapter One
Before Criminology

Criminologists were not the first to theorize crime, its causes, and the best policies for prevention. Centuries – indeed millennia – before nineteenth-century Europeans first used the scientific method to theorize crime, it was addressed in systematic ways – not scientifically, but rationally – by earlier writers in the Western tradition, especially philosophers. It is well-known that late-nineteenth-century criminologists such as Lombroso, Garafolo, and Ferri (the first to use the moniker “criminologists”) were responding with science to social problems articulated (with reason rather than science) by earlier writers such as Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. It is less well-known that these criminologists were responding to questions about crime and justice that had been posed in the classical age by philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, and Seneca; in the middle ages by Boethius, Augustine, and Aquinas; and in the early-modern age by thinkers including Machiavelli, Montaigne, Bacon, Hobbes, Diderot, Helvetius, Montesquieu, Hume, and Kant. Can we tell the story of criminology in such a way that the moderns are understood not to have invented something new, but to have done something old in a new way? Can we define criminology so that the modern form of the field (which emphasizes academic, scientific, empirical, and quantitative analysis) can be understood as just that: the modern form of a field which has other forms both temporally (classical vs. modern) and methodologically (scientific vs. humanistic)?

Chapter Two
Literature and Criminology

This chapter theorizes the field of Criminology and Literature. These disciplines belong to different worlds—the social sciences and the humanities—yet crime is one of literature’s central concerns and, like criminology, literature often explores the sociological and psychological contexts of crime. Thus, thinkers building criminological theories have frequently found inspiration in literary texts and terminology—from earlier figures like Cesare Lombroso, Sigmund Freud, and Erving Goffman to recent movements such as Cultural Criminology, Public Criminology, and Narrative Criminology. Uncovering the literary aspects of criminology and the criminological concerns of literature, this essay calls for further integration of scientific and artistic studies of crime. It surveys the rise of the field of Criminology and Literature, its theoretical basis, the forms it takes, and future directions and questions, including the need for empirical research on the effectiveness of this enterprise. Ultimately, it argues that literary studies unlock an imagination lacking in criminology, while criminology offers literary critics pathways to power amidst a crisis in the humanities.

Chapter Three
The Word Criminology: A Philology and a Definition

This chapter looks into the past of the field as a way to think about its future. I take a philological approach to the word criminology, looking at its etymology and history, to argue for a new definition of the field: Criminology is the systematic study of crime, criminals, criminal law, criminal justice, and criminalization. I expand and explain this definition with respect to some common and (I argue) misguided dictates of criminology as it is traditionally understood. Specifically, I argue that criminology is usually but not necessarily academic and scientific, which means that criminology can be public and/or humanistic. I arrive at these thoughts by presenting some early English instances of the word criminology which predate the attempt to theorize a field of criminology in Italy and France in the 1880s, and I offer some new readings of those Italian and French texts. These philological analyses then come into conversation with some twentieth-century attempts to define the field and some twenty-first-century innovations in an effort to generate a definition of criminology that is responsive to the diversity of criminology in both its original formation and its ongoing transformations. Thus, the virtue of this new understanding of criminology is its inclusiveness: It normalizes unorthodox criminological research, which opens up new possibilities for jobs and funding in the name of criminology, which holds the promise of new perspectives on crime, new theories of criminology, and new policies for prevention and treatment.


Abate, M.A. (2013). Bloody murder: The homicide tradition in children's literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Andrews, F.E., & Dickens, A. (eds.). (1972). Voices from the big house. Detroit: Harlo Press.

Adams, G.R. (1972). Riot as ritual: Ann Petry’s ‘In Darkness and Confusion’. Negro American Literature Forum, 6(2), 54-60.

Agozino, B. (1995). Radical criminology in African literature. International Sociology, 10(3), 315-29.

Agozino, B. (2003). Counter-colonial criminology: A critique of imperialist reason. London: Pluto Press.

Alshiban, Afra Saleh. (2012). Exploring criminology in literary texts: Robert Browning—an example. Journal of Literature and Art Studies, 2(4), 454-63.

Arntfield, M. (2016). Gothic Forensics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Arntfield, M., & Danesi, M. (Eds.). (2016). The criminal humanities. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Arntfield, M., & Danesi, M. (2017). Murder in plain English: From manifestos to memes—looking at murder through the words of killers. Amherst: Prometheus.

Barak, G. (1988). Newsmaking criminology: Reflections of the media, intellectuals, and crime. Justice Quarterly 5(4), 565–587.

Barak, G. (1998). Integrating Criminologies. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Barton, A., Corteen, K., Scott, D., & Whyte, D. (Eds.) (2007). Expanding the criminological imagination. Gloucester: Willan.

Becker, H. (Ed.). (1995). Antonio Candido: On literature and society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Becker, P., Wetzell, R. (2006) Criminals and their scientists: The history of criminology in international perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ben-Zvi, L. (1992). ‘Murder, she wrote’: The Genesis of Susan Glaspell's Trifles. Theatre Journal, 44(2), 141-62.

Beirne, P. (1993). Inventing criminology: Essays on the rise of 'homo criminalis' Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Bennett, J. (1988). Oral history and delinquency: The rhetoric of criminology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Bosworth, M., & Hoyle, C. (Eds.). (2011). What is criminology? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bowman, B.A. (2009). Classical literature for the criminal justice classroom. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 20(1), 95-109.

Braga-Pinto, César. (2014). Othello’s Pathologies: Reading Adolfo Caminha with Lombroso. Comparative Literature, 66(2): 149–72.

Brisman, A. (2017). On narrative and green cultural criminology. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 6(2), 64-77.

Buist, C.L., & Lenning, E. (2015). Queer criminology. New York: Routledge.

Burke, K. (1973). Literature as equipment for living. In Philosophy of the literary form: Studies in symbolic action, third ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 293-304.

Burney, E. (2012). Crime and criminology in the eye of the novelist: Trends in nineteenth century literature. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 51(2), 160-72.

Byrne, D.N., & Bezbatchenko, A.W. (2021, Jan. 26). Educating future law enforcement officers. Inside Higher Ed,

Cather, K.H. (2004). The CSI effect: Fake TV and its impact on jurors in criminal cases. The Prosecutor, 38(2), n.p.

Chevigny, P.G. (2001). From betrayal to violence: Dante’s Inferno and the social construction of crime. Law & Social Inquiry, 26(4), 787-818.

Cohen, S. (1988). Against criminology. Oxford, UK: Transaction Books.

Colvin, S. (2015). Why should criminology care about literary fiction? Literature, life narratives and telling untellable stories. Punishment & Society, 17(2), 211-29.

Cook, K.L., & Bacot, H. (1993). Movies in the classroom: Popular images of criminal justice, criminology, and the law. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 4(1), 199-209.

Copes, H., & Miller, M. (2015). The Routledge handbook of qualitative criminology. Aldershot: Routledge.

Corbett, R.P. (1994). ‘Novel’ perspectives on probation: Fiction as sociology. Sociological Forum, 9, 307-314.

Cory, D.W. (1951). The homosexual in America: A subjective approach. New York: Greenberg.

Crewe, D., & Lippens, R. (Eds.) (2015). What is criminology about? Philosophical reflections. New York: Routledge.

Davie, N. (2011). History artfully dodged? Crime, prisons and the legacy of ‘Dickens's England’. Dickens Quarterly, 28(4), 261-72.

Dietsche, L.A. (2020, Oct. 28). Poetry, prisoners and transformative justice. CrimeTalk.

Dow, P.E. (1980). Criminology in literature. New York: Longman.

Downing, L. (2009). Murder in the feminine: Marie Lafarge and the sexualization of the nineteenth-century criminal woman. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 18(1), 121-37.

Dragiewicz, M., & DeKeseredy, W.S., ed. (2018). Routledge handbook of critical criminology. London: Routledge.

Duberman, M. (1997). Dr. Sagarin and Mr. Cory: The ‘father’ of the homophile movement. Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review, 4, 7-14.

Engel, S.T. (2003). Teaching literature in the criminal justice curriculum. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 14(2), 345-54.

Ferguson, C. (2007). Eugenics and the afterlife: Lombroso, Doyle, and the spiritualist purification of the race. Journal of Victorian Culture, 12(1), 64–85.

Ferrell, J. (1997). Criminological verstehen: Inside the immediacy of crime. Justice Quarterly 14(1), 3–23.

Ferrell, J. (2009). Kill method: A provocation. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology, 1(1),

Ferrell, J., & Sanders, C. (1995). Cultural criminology. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.

Ferrell, J., Hayward, K. J., Morrison, W., & Presdee, M. (Eds.). (2004). Cultural criminology unleashed. Portland, OR: Cavendish.

Ferrell, J. Hayward, K. J., & Young, J. (2008). Cultural criminology: An invitation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fitzpatrick, K. (2021). Generous thinking: A radical approach to saving the university. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Fradella, H. F. (2014). In support of transdisciplinary CCJLS scholarship: A preface to the inaugural issue. Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society, 15(2), 1–13.

Francis, P. (2009). Visual criminology. Criminal Justice Matters, 78(1), 10–11.

Franklin, H.B. (1978). The victim as criminal and artist: Literature from the American prison. New York: Oxford University Press.

Frauley, J. (2010a). Criminology, deviance, and the silver screen: The fictional reality and the criminological imagination. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Frauley, J. (2010b). The fictional reality and criminology: An ontology of theory and exemplary pedagogical practice. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 21(3), 437-59.

Frauley, J. (2015a). On imaginative criminology and its significance. Societies 5(3), 618-30.

Frauley, J., & Rigakos, G. (2011). The promise of critical realism: Toward a post-empiricist criminology. In A. Doyle & D. Moore, Critical Criminology in Canada: New Voices, New Directions (pp. 243-68). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Gabbidon, S.L. (2001). W. E. B. Du Bois: Pioneering American criminologist. Journal of Black Studies, 31(5): 581–99.

Gabbidon, S.L. (2007). W.E.B. Du Bois on crime and justice: Laying the foundations of sociological criminology. New York: Routledge.

Garland, D. (1994). Of crimes and criminals: The development of criminology in Britain. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan, & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Gelfand, E. (1981). Imprisoned women: Toward a socio-literary feminist analysis.” Yale French Studies 62, 185–203.

Gemert, F. (2015). Life history and biography in criminology. In H. Copes and J.M. Miller (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Qualitative Criminology (pp. 74-87). New York: Routledge.

Georgoulas, S. (2018). The origins of radical criminology: From Homer to pre-Socratic philosophy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gibson, M. (2002). Born to crime: Cesare Lombroso and the origins of biological criminology. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Griffin, T., & Miller, M.K. (2008). Child abduction, AMBER Alert, and crime control theater. Criminal Justice Review, 33(2), 159-76.

Halsted, J. B. (1985). Criminal justice education and the humanities: A new era? Educational & Psychological Research, 5(3), 149–164.

Hemmens, C., & Stohr, M.K. (2007). All we gotta do is hold up our end: Bruce Springsteen and strain theory. Interdisciplinary Literary Studies, 9(1), 105–18.

Henry, S., & Lanier, M. (2001). What is crime? Controversies over the nature of crime and what to do about it. Lanham, ML: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Hillyard, P., Pantazis, C., Tombs, S., & Gordon, D. (2004.) Beyond criminology: Taking harms seriously. London, England: Pluto Press.

Hilfer, A.C. (1990). The crime novel: A deviant genre. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Hiller, J.R. (2013). Lombroso and the science of literature and opera. In P. Kneper and P.J. Ystehede (Eds.), The Cesare Lombroso Handbook (). London: Routledge.

Hirschel, J.D., & McNair, J.R. (1982). Integrating the study of criminal justice and literature. American Journal of Criminal Justice 7(2), 75-98.

Jacobsen, M.H. (Ed.) (2014). The poetics of crime: Understanding and researching crime and deviance through creative sources. New York: Ashgate.

Jeffery, C. R. (1959). The historical development of criminology. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 50(1), 3–19.

Kaba, M. (2020, June 12). Yes, we mean literally abolish police. New York Times,

Karschay, S. (2019). Doyle and the Criminal Body. In J.M. Allan & C. Pittard (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Sherlock Holmes (pp. 96–110). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Karson, L. Slate, C., & Saulsbury, R., Eds. (2017). Crime, justice and literature: A reader. Dubuque: Kendall Hunt.

Kay, A. (2019, May 10). Academe’s extinction event: Failure, whiskey, and professional collapse at the MLA. Chronicle of Higher Education,

Kelly, R. J. (1991). Mapping the domains of crime: The contributions of literary works to criminology. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 35(1), 45-61.

Lacan, J. (1950). A theoretical introduction to the functions of psychoanalysis in criminology. In B. Fink (Trans.), Écrits(pp. 102-22). New York: Norton.

Léger-St-Jean, M. (2012, Oct.). A portrait of the monster as criminal; or, the criminal as outcast: Opposing ætiologies of crime in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Romanticism on the Net 62:

Lemay, J.A.L. (1982). The psychology of ‘The Murders in the Rue Morgue’. American Literature, 54(2), 165-88.

Lewis, E. Who took the weight? Black voices from Norfolk Prison. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.

Loader, I., & Sparks, R. (2010). Public criminology. London: Routledge.

Looser, D. (2019, March 2). Teaching Jane Austen to sex offenders. Salon,

Mackey, D.A., & Levan, K. (2019). Moral dilemmas and worst-case scenarios: Using post-apocalyptic fiction to teach criminal justice ethics. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 30(3), 319-32.

MacLennan, J. (2005). A rhetorical journey into darkness: Crime-scene profiling as Burkean analysis. KB Journal, 1(2),

Makinen, M. (2006). Agatha Christie: Investigating femininity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

McGregor, R. (2018). Narrative justice. London: Rowman & Littlefield.

McGregor, R. (2020). Criminological fiction: What is it good for? Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology, 12(1), 18-36.

McGregor, R. (2021). A criminology of narrative fiction. Bristol: Bristol University Press.

Meléndez, P. (2011). The body and the law in the Mexico/U.S. borderlands: Violence and violations in El Viaje de Los Cantores by Hugo Salcedo and Backyard by Sabina Berman. Modern Drama, 54(1), 24-44.

Mills, C. Wright. (1959). The sociological imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mueller, G.O.W. (1986). The criminological significance of the Grimms’ Fairy Tales. In R.B. Bottigheimer & L. Röhrich, Fairy Tales and Society: Illusion, Allusion, and Paradigm (pp. 217–27). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Nellis, M. (2009). The aesthetics of redemption: Released prisoners in American film and literature. Theoretical Criminology, 13(1), 129-46.

Nussbaum, M. (1995). Poetic justice: The literary imagination and public life. Boston: Beacon Press.

Nussbaum, M. (2010). Not for profit: Why democracy needs the humanities. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Pasolini, A. (2019). Heroes or villains? Investigating intersectional female identities in Orange Is the New Black. Altre Modernità, 22, 258–78.

Pepinsky, H., & Quinney, R. (1991). Criminology as peacemaking. Indianapolis, IA: Indiana University Press.

Pérez, L.P., Linde, A., Molas-Castells, N., & Fuertes-Alpiste, M. (2019). The use of novelettes for learning in a criminology degree course. Studies in Higher Education, 44(11), 1874-88.

Perloff, M. (2011). The decay of a discipline: Reflections on the English department today. Qui Parle, 20(1), 153-67.

Piamonte, S. (2015). The criminological imagination and the promise of fiction. In J. Frauley (Ed.), C. Wright Mills and the Criminological Imagination: Prospects for Creative Inquiry (pp. 241-54). New York: Ashgate.

Picart, C.J. (Ed.). (2020). Monsters, law, crime: Explorations in gothic criminology. Lanham: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

Picart, C.J., & Greek, C.E., Eds. (2007). Monsters in and among us: Toward a gothic criminology. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

Platt, T. (1974). Prospects for a radical criminology in the United States. Crime and Social Justice, 1, 2–10.

Powell, J.A. (2010). Criminal justice in literature: A teaching curriculum. MA Thesis, California State University, Sacramento:

Presser, L., & Sandberg, S. (2015). Narrative criminology. New York: New York University Press.

Prins, H. (2014). Mental disorder, criminality and the literary imagination. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 53(3), 290-308.

Radzinowicz, L. (2002). A brief for criminology. In Adventures in criminology (pp. 440–469). New York, NY: Routledge.

Rafter. N. (1992). Criminal anthropology in the United States. Criminology, 30(4), 525–45.

Rafter, N. (2000). Shots in the mirror: Crime films and society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rafter, N. (2007). Crime, film and criminology: Recent sex-crime movies. Theoretical Criminology, 11(3), 403–420.

Rafter, N. (2011). Origins of criminology. In M. Bosworth & C. Hoyle (Eds.), What is criminology? (pp. 143–156). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Rafter, N., & Brown, M. (2011). Criminology goes to the movies: Crime theory and popular culture. New York: New York University Press.

Richards, S. C., & Ross, J. I. (2001). The new school of convict criminology. Social Justice, 28(1), 177–190.

Rock, P. (1994). History of criminology. Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth Publishing.

Rothkirch, A. (2013). ‘His face was livid, dreadful, with a foam at the corners of His mouth’: A typology of villains in classic detective stories. Modern Language Review, 108(4): 1042–63.

Ruggiero, V. (2002). Moby Dick and the Crimes of the Economy. British Journal of Criminology, 42, 96–108.

Ruggiero, V. (2003). Crime in literature: Sociology of deviance and fiction. London: Verso.

Ruggiero, V. (2018). Fiction, war and criminology. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 18(5), 604-16.

Sagarin, E. (1980). In search of criminology through fiction. Deviant Behavior, 2(1), 73-91.

Sagarin, E. (1981). Raskolnikov and others: Literary images of crime, punishment, redemption, and atonement. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Sagarin, E. (1983). Literature and crime. In S.H. Kadish (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice (vol. 3, pp.1006-13). New York: Free Press.

Sagarin, E., & Kelly, R.J. (1985). Responsibility and crime in literature. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 477, 12-24.

Schmidt, B. (2018, Aug. 23). The humanities are in crisis. The Atlantic,

Schur, A. (2013). Wages of evil: Dostoevsky and punishment. Chicago: Northwestern University Press, 2013.

Seal, L., O’Neill, M. (2019). Imaginative criminology: Of spaces past, present and future. Bristol: Bristol University Press.

Selmini, R. (2020). Exploring cultural criminology: The police world in fiction. European Journal of Criminology, 17(5), 501-17.

Shelley, P.B. (1840). “A Defence of Poetry.” In M. Shelley (Ed.), Essays, Letters from Abroad, Translations and Fragments (vol. 1, pp. 1-57). London: Edward Moxon.

Shin, Haerin. (2018). “The Neurocognitive Criminology of Avenging Memories: Dissociative Violence in Young-Ha Kim’s The Mnemonics of a Murderer.” The Journal of Korean Studies 23 (2): 299–324.

Smart, C. (1976). Women, crime, and criminology: A feminist critique. London: Routledge.

Smith, B.A. (1987). Literature in criminal justice education. Journal of Criminal Justice, 15(2), 137-44.

Smith, B.A. (1993). The fictional con man as a teaching tool. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 4(1), 153-76.

Snow, C.P. (1959). The Two Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sokolow, D.S. (1991). From Akira Kurosawa to (Duncan) Kennedy: The lessons of Rashomon for Current Legal Education. Wisconsin Law Review, 1991, 969-87.

South, N. (1998). A green field for criminology?: A proposal for a perspective. Theoretical Criminology, 2(2), 211-33.

Squires, P.C. (1938). Charles Dickens as criminologist. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 29(2), 170-201.

Steinert, H. (1997). Fin de siecle criminology. Theoretical Criminology, 1(1), 111-29.

Stoll, E.E. (1912). Criminals in Shakespeare and in science. Modern Philology 10(1), 55–80.

Stuntz, W.J. (2011). The collapse of American criminal justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Talbot, C.K. (1982). The moral mirror image of crime: A comparison of recorded crime and crime recorded in fiction. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 6(2), 195-202.

Talbot, C.K. (1988). Towards the criminology of literature. Crimecare Journal, 4(1).

Taylor, I., Walton, P., & Young, J. (1973). The new criminology, for a social theory of deviance. London: Routledge.

Thomas, R.R. (1999). Detective fiction and the rise of forensic science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Time, V.M. (1999). Shakespeare’s criminals: Criminology, fiction, and drama. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Time, V.M. (2003). Shakespeare’s female victims: Criminology and fiction. Women and Criminal Justice, 14(4), 81-105.

Tregea, W.S. (2014). Prisoners on criminology: Convict life stories and crime prevention. Lanham: Lexington.

Trigo, B. (1997). Crossing the boundaries of madness: Criminology and figurative language in Argentina (1878-1920). Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, 6(1): 7–20.

Varney, D. (2009). Radical disengagement and liquid lives: Criminology by Arena Theatre Company. Australasian Drama Studies, 54, 125–41.

West, A.D. (2005). Horton the elephant is a criminal: Using Dr. Seuss to teach social process, conflict, and labelling theory. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 16(2), 341-58.

White, J.B. (1973). The legal imagination: Studies in the nature of legal thought and expression. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co.

Warkentin, E. (2011). Using a ‘woman’s wit and cunning’: Marie Belloc Lowndes rewrites the ripper. Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies, 7(1),

Weisberg, R. (1989). The law-literature enterprise. Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities, 1(1), 1-67.

Wetzell, R. (2000). Inventing the criminal: A history of German criminology, 1880-1945. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Wilson, D. (2017). Criminology and the legacies of Clarice Starling. In Anthony Amatrudo and Regina Rauxloh (Eds.), Law in popular belief: Myth and reality (pp. 143-60). Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Wilson, J.R. (2014). Shakespeare and criminology. Crime, Media, Culture, 10(2), 97-114.

Wilson, J.R. (2016, June). Violent crime as revenge tragedy; Or, how Christopher Dorner led criminologists at CSU Long Beach to Shakespeare. This Rough Magic:

Wilson, J.R. (2017). ‘When evil deeds have their permissive pass’: Broken windows in William Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure. Law and the Humanities, 11(2), 160-83.

Wilson, J.R. (2019a). Macbeth and Criminology. College Literature, 46(2), 453-85.

Wilson, J.R. (2019b). ‘Redeeming time’: The Dramatization of Desistance in 1 Henry IV. In K. Graham & A. Kolentsis (Eds.), Shakespeare On Stage and Off (pp. 139-55). Kingston, Ontario: McGill-Queen's University Press.

Wilson, J.R. (2021). Shakespeare for cops. Shakespeare Survey 74.

Wilson, J.R., & Fradella, H.F. (2020). The Hamlet syndrome. Law, Culture, and the Humanities, 16(1), 82-102.

Wilson, R.E. (1963). Reading in criminology for pleasure and perspective. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 54(1), 70-74.

Young, A. (2009). The scene of violence: Cinema, crime, affect. New York: Routledge.

Young, J. (2011). The criminological imagination. Cambridge: Polity.

Zuba, J. (2018). Pedagogies of personhood: The place of lyric in cultural criminology. In S.L. Kleppe & A. Sorby (Eds.), Poetry and pedagogy across the lifespan (pp. 117-38). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.